1° de mayo: tres conceptos que debemos conocer

El 1° mayo se conmemora el día del trabajo, éste tiene sus orígenes en los movimientos laborales a nivel internacional a principios del siglo XIX. Los primeros sindicatos de mineros y la unión de varias organizaciones gremiales exigían la reducción de la jornada laboral. Las primeras demandas pedían el cumplimiento de 10 horas para el día laboral. Posteriormente, se redujeron a 8 horas, pensando en que las personas deben trabajar 8, descansar 8 y dormir otras 8 para tener una vida digna y saludable. Por supuesto, los patrones y dueños de las empresas se negaron sistemáticamente a reducir sus ganancias en favor de sus trabajadores.

Más tarde, en 1886, se realiza una convocatoria a una huelga general en Estados Unidos. Estas protestas siguieron hasta que, el 4 mayo en Chicago, detuvieron, encarcelaron y ejecutaron a 4 dirigentes de las organizaciones en protesta, en su mayoría anarcosindicalistas. Ahora son conocidos como los mártires de Chicago.

Hoy, gracias al feminismo y la organización colectiva, las mujeres hemos ganado diversos derechos laborales, y en México existen diversas leyes generales, enmarcadas en la Ley Federal del Trabajo, que protegen nuestros intereses. Aunque todas sabemos que siempre es difícil, o hasta imposible, hacerlas cumplir.

Aquí te mostramos tres términos que pueden ayudarte a nombrar ese agotamiento físico y mental con el que vivimos la mayoría de las mujeres.

Doble jornada laboral

Este término comenzó a utilizarse a finales de la década de los 70 para referirse a la jornada laboral que se desarrolla en centros de trabajo sumada a las actividades en el ámbito privado. Ésta última, es el conjunto de la limpieza del hogar, cuidado de los hijos, compra de alimentos y suministros de la casa, etc. Debido al desgaste físico y mental, se puede considerar una segunda jornada laboral, pero sin remuneración.

Acá de dejamos un video que lo explica mejor:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fqDIPpw8cEw

Triple jornada laboral

Recientemente, se ha denominado de esta forma a los cuidados especiales de personas con diversidad funcional, adultos mayores o personas con enfermedades terminales o crónicas. Es decir, las tareas que corresponden a la carrera de enfermería son realizados por mujeres alrededor del globo que no cobran ningún tipo de sueldo.

Aquí encontrarás varios ejemplos de mujeres que cuentan sus casos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2YbVqC5utio

Trabajo mental

Este trabajo se realiza dentro y fuera del ámbito profesional. Refiere al desgaste mental y emocional que conlleva gestionar el alimento, las actividades, la limpieza, organización, etc., que requieren tanto los centros de trabajo como los hogares.

Bajo la imposición social que relega este trabajo a las mujeres, históricamente hemos vivido en una crisis de salud emocional y mental que los gobiernos se niegan a reconocer, y por lo tanto, resolver.

Aquí te compartimos la entrevista a Emma Clit, una autora que desarrolla fácil y rápido este tema en un comic:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hpt4RTbKKW4

Lidia Gatica

Anarquista. Sindicalista. Ensayista feminista.

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